India’s Quest For 5th Generation Fighter Aircraft

A 5th generation fighter aircraft is a modern, advanced fighter aircraft that incorporates the latest technological advancements in avionics, sensors, materials, and weaponry. These aircraft are designed to perform multiple roles, including air-to-air combat, air-to-ground strike, and reconnaissance missions.

Some of the key features of a fifth generation fighter aircraft include:

  • Stealth technology: 5th generation fighter aircraft are designed to be stealthy, which means they have low radar visibility and reduced infrared signature, making them difficult to detect by enemy radars.
  • Advanced avionics: These aircraft are equipped with advanced avionics, including highly integrated computer systems and sensors that allow pilots to fly and fight more effectively.
  • Supercruise capability: 5th-generation fighters can fly at supersonic speeds without using afterburners, which makes them more fuel-efficient and reduces their infrared signature.
  • Integrated sensor fusion: These aircraft are equipped with advanced sensors that can detect and track multiple targets simultaneously. The data from these sensors is then fused and presented to the pilot in an easy-to-understand format, allowing for more effective decision-making.
  • Advanced weapons: 5th generation aircraft are equipped with advanced weapons, including air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground missiles, and precision-guided bombs. They also have advanced electronic warfare capabilities to disrupt enemy communications and radar.

India’s 5th generation fighter aircraft program is known as the “Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft” (AMCA). The AMCA is being developed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) in collaboration with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

The AMCA is expected to be a twin-engine, stealthy fighter aircraft with advanced avionics, sensor fusion, and weapon systems. The aircraft will also feature supercruise capability, which means it can fly at supersonic speeds without using afterburners, and advanced electronic warfare capabilities to disrupt enemy communications and radar. The development of the AMCA is still in the prototype stage, with the first flight expected to take place in the mid-2020s. The Indian Air Force (IAF) plans to induct the AMCA into its fleet by the late 2030s and expects the aircraft to be a significant boost to its combat capabilities. The AMCA program is also expected to enhance India’s defense industry capabilities and reduce its dependence on foreign-made fighter aircraft.

The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) has completed the design of the fifth generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) and will move on to the Critical Design Review stage (CDR). A CDR is a technical evaluation that ensures an aircraft’s system can go through fabrication, demonstration, and testing while meeting performance requirements. CDR is a test to see if metal cutting, the first step in the construction of an aircraft, can take place. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) is the AMCA project’s hardware partner. BEL is working to ensure that no digital flight control computers (DFCC) are imported from other countries. The AMCA project is estimated to cost Rs 15,000 crore or approximately 1.80 billion.

A new Flight Control System (FCS) integration facility was inaugurated last year at the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), Bengaluru, to support the Research & Development (R&D) efforts for developing Avionics for AMCA. The scaled model of the AMCA’s internal weapons bay was recently unveiled in Aero India 2023.

 Other Fifth Generation Fighters

Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor (USA) – considered the world’s most advanced fighter jet with stealth technology, advanced avionics, and supercruise capability. Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II (USA) – a versatile and highly advanced fighter jet with stealth capabilities, advanced sensors, avionics, and the ability to conduct air-to-air and air-to-ground missions. Chengdu J-20 (China) – China’s first fifth-generation fighter jet, designed for air superiority with stealth technology and advanced avionics. Sukhoi Su-57 (Russia) – a Russian fifth-generation fighter jet, designed for air superiority and ground attack with stealth technology and advanced avionics.

The Tempest is a planned sixth-generation fighter aircraft being developed by the United Kingdom in partnership with Italy and Sweden. The project is led by British aerospace company BAE Systems in collaboration with Rolls-Royce, Leonardo, and MBDA. The Tempest is currently in the development phase, with the first flight of a full-scale prototype expected in the mid-2020s. The project is part of the UK’s Future Combat Air System (FCAS) program, which aims to develop a next-generation combat air system to replace the Royal Air Force’s current fleet of fighter jets.

The KF-21 also known as the KF-X, is a next-generation fighter aircraft being developed by South Korea’s defense industry. The KF-21 program is intended to replace South Korea’s aging fleet of F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger II fighter jets. The development of the KF-21 is a joint project between the South Korean government and Korean defense companies, including Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) and Hanwha Systems. The prototype of the KF-21 was unveiled in April 2021, and the aircraft is currently undergoing flight testing with plans to enter service with the Republic of Korea Air Force in the mid-2020s.


The AMCA program is critical to India for a variety of reasons. For starters, it will benefit the Indian Air Force, which now has only 30-32 fighter squadrons versus the sanctioned strength of 42 squadrons. Its development is also crucial since India is facing several emerging challenges. Furthermore, the AMCA project will strengthen India’s defense development capability.

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