Since the First World War, when the British armed forces intercepted German radio conversations to learn about their major plans and strategies, signal intelligence has been a part of warfare. Today, military & defense organizations and intelligence agencies heavily rely on signal intelligence to spot terrorist activity, learn about the goals and capabilities of the opposing country, and afterwards avert conflicts or wars brought on by intense political unrest. SIGINT (signals intelligence) is knowledge gleaned from the gathering and examination of an assigned target’s electronic communications and signals. In this sense, intelligence refers to knowledge that supports a person or organization’s decision-making and may help them obtain a competitive advantage. The word is frequently shortened to “intel.” SIGINT is used by intelligence services all around the world to collect data both domestically and abroad. The main objective of signals intelligence, is to learn about the threats, actions, capabilities, and intentions of a nation’s enemies. SIGINT may also serve as a road map for the best actions to consider or carry out in order to ensure readiness because it provides a window into the potential military and other threats that a country may need to protect against. In the 1950s, CIA U-2s carried one or more SIGINT sensors on every mission. The initial two sensors had just rudimentary capabilities. However, the CIA immediately created more advanced ones. Unfortunately, very few documents related to the SIGINT programme have been made public. The majority of information regarding the intelligence gathered and its contributions to meeting ELINT and COMINT requirements, however, is still classified.
Modern SIGINT focuses on the coupling of a powerful signal and data processing back-end within the receiver core with a high-dynamic range analogue tuner optimized for optimum linearity. Wideband signals can be handled while maintaining high-quality narrowband receiver performance. It is now possible to track frequency agile systems across a wide range of bandwidths as well as analyze and demodulate contemporary digital wideband signals.
Under-wing SIGINT Pod is installed and accessible for relevant client platforms. Podded SIGINT offer scalability and flexibility to aerial platforms, allowing configuration according to the mission requirement. This allows a single platform such as an UAV to be used for multiple roles. Dedicated radar and communication intelligence capabilities allow radar signature gathering of various targets in an area of concern. Podded SIGINT are able to merge into a single intelligence image providing a holistic picture to the commander. Podded SIGINT allows integrating the C2-system already in place hence enabling quick deployment and operability. Modern podded SIGINT solution have the ability to function in highly contested environment.
Scalable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based SIGINT capability in small to big footprints are gaining popularity. The open architectural systems are fully scalable in terms of frequency range, number of parallel channels, and number of tuner assets. They are designed with cutting-edge, multi coherent channel, pooled resource SIGINT systems. Integrated SIGINT leverages the most recent generation of COTS technology. SIGINT performs Search, detect, and copy operations produce hundreds to thousands of outputs as a result, producing effective, scalable SIGINT. The purpose of this small integrated SIGINT receiver workstation is to scan and track the frequency spectrum in the HF, VHF, and UHF bands. Wide-band receivers with quick scanning are able to detect and record activity in the frequency spectrum. The integrated SIGINT receiver systems record, analyze, and decode (optionally) the received signal using a multi-channel monitoring receiver after demodulating it. The system can determine the bearing (direction) of the incoming radio signal using direction finding (DF) algorithms. In the case of standalone operation, the operator can change every parameter via the local terminal’s graphical user interface. When linked to a TCP/IP network, remote control is possible.
SATELLITE BASED SIGINT
Solutions for satellite SIGINT are made to locate electromagnetic signals from radars and radio communication systems in regions that are out of the range of surface sensors. User and ground control segments support SIGINT satellites. Satellites can operate in any weather when they are in low Earth orbit since they are not restricted by airspace over flight regulations. These satellites will give the armed forces detailed information to support combat operations, enhancing situational awareness.
GROUND BASED SIGINT
Ground-based Electronic Warfare (EW) and Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) units are outfitted with Command and Control systems, Electronic Countermeasures, and Electronic Support Measures. In order to effectively counter threats from the air and the ground, these devices will produce a thorough passive air and ground image and offer an electronic order of battle. As military around the world increasingly realize how crucial it is to control the electromagnetic spectrum, there is an increase in demand for EW and SIGINT technologies. In the northeastern Bay of Bengal, there are two islands known as the Coco Islands. They are a part of Myanmar’s Yangon area. In 1994, the People’s Republic of China leased them. The most significant People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) signal intelligence site is the marine reconnaissance and electronic intelligence station on Great Coco Island, some 300 km south of Myanmar’s mainland.
Due to the present geo political conditions in Europe and the Asia Pacific region, SIGINT demand will continue to increase. Naval and Airborne SIGINT systems will continue to remain a critical asset to military forces.