A bulletproof vest is a protective vest worn to shield the body from projectiles. In order to shield the torso from shell pieces during World War I, modern body armors were employed. However, as built, the armor was too heavy to be justified by the protection it provided. Body armor that covered both the front and the back of the wearer and was made of overlapping plates of steel, aluminum, or bonded fiberglass was developed during World War II. These flak coats were adaptable enough to let the wearer to move around with some freedom while still providing him with sufficient protection from shell pieces. However, they were unable to block an armor-piercing bullet. Because there are many different kinds of projectile, it is frequently incorrect to describe a product as bulletproof, which suggests that it will defend against all dangers. Most people use the word bullet resistant instead. Both requirements for penetration resistance and restrictions on the amount of impact force imparted to the body are often included in vest standards. Heavy bullets can still deliver enough force to produce blunt force injuries beneath the impact point even if they don’t penetrate. Due to the fact that it is not meant to fragment or expand, armor-piercing ammunition typically has poor terminal ballistics.
HARD AND SOFT ARMOR
There are two main types of modern body armor: soft armor and hard armor. Soft armor typically offers protection from fragmentation and pistol threats and is comprised of woven materials like Dyneema or Kevlar. Ballistic plates are a common example of hard armor; these toughened plates are made to protect against threats from rifles in addition to those that soft armor can fend off. Soft armor typically consists of woven materials and offers NIJ level IIIA protection. A soft armor plate backer is typically positioned behind the ballistic plate in these in-conjunction systems, and the combination of soft and hard armor provide the prescribed bulletproof vests’ levels of protection. Hard armor ballistic plates can be broadly categorized into three categories: ceramic plate-based systems, steel plate with a protective covering (or backer) against spall fragmentation, and hard fiber-based laminate systems. These hard armor plates can be used In-Conjunction with soft armor backers, often known as plate backers, or they can be utilized alone. Many systems combine laminated textile materials with hard ceramic components. There are many different kinds of ceramic materials used, but the most popular ones are silicon carbide, boron carbide, and aluminum oxide. These systems use the same fibers that are used in soft textile armor. However, high pressure lamination of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene with a Kraton matrix is the most popular method for protecting rifles.
RISE OF ADVANCED FIBERS AND COMPOSITES
Ballistic vests grab and deform a bullet by layering layers of extremely strong fibers, mushrooming it into a dish shape and dispersing its force over a larger area of the fiber. Before the bullet can fully pierce the textile matrix, the vest absorbs the energy from the deforming shot and stops it. While the bullet may pierce a few layers, the energy is absorbed by a growing region of fiber as it deforms. A true bulletproof vest that can stop pistol and rifle bullets using a soft textile vest, without the aid of extra metal or ceramic plating, has become a possibility in recent years because to improvements in material science. Improved ballistic outcomes have been mostly attributed to finer yarns and lighter woven textiles. As the yarn size gets smaller, ballistic fiber prices skyrocket. For both hard and soft ballistics, three-dimensional weaving with fibers joining flat woven together into a 3D system is being investigated. Bulletproof vests could be made from materials like Kevlar, Twaron, Spectra, or polyethylene fiber. In addition to plates made of fiberglass, steel, ceramic, titanium, Doron, and composites of ceramic and fiberglass, the vests of the era were also fashioned of ballistic nylon, with the latter being the most effective. For a prospective market release, nano-based armors and bulletproof vests made of spider silk are being researched. A carbon fiber made of carbon nanotubes has attracted the interest of numerous armed forces.
Advanced Body armor undoubtedly has advantages, such as better defense against fragmentation and ballistic threats and built-in flame resistance. As lighter body armor becomes more and more necessary, manufacturers are looking to incorporate cutting-edge material into their creations. In this industry, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is poised to become the next big thing. As lighter body armor becomes more and more necessary, manufacturers are looking to incorporate cutting-edge material into their creations. In this industry, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is poised to become the next big thing. UHMWPE is claimed to be 15 times more durable than steel, additionally, manufacturers are turning to nanotechnology to create ballistic materials that are as light as clothing and possess vital life-saving properties. Hence it is evident that advancements in nano technology will play a vital role in developing lightweight and versatile military bulletproof vest in the future.