An operational environment is a collection of variables, events, and factors that influence the use of capabilities and drive commanding decisions. The air, land, sea, and space domains are all part of the operational environment. It also comprises enemy, adversary, friendly, and neutral systems that are relevant to a combined operation, as well as information that shapes the operating environment. Both friendly and enemy commanders rely on the flow of information to make an informed decision during military operations. The electronic systems and gadgets that transmit, navigate, sense, store, and process information are critical to this information flow.
Commanders plan for and run electronic systems and the weapon systems that rely on them under an intense and non-permissive electromagnetic environment. They make sure that the information they need to make decisions is flowing. For nearly a century, the electromagnetic spectrum has been employed for commercial and military purposes. Beyond the standard radio frequency band, new technologies are emerging. High-powered microwaves and directed-energy weapons are among them. These new technologies are part of a military electronic warfare (EW) market revolution. Friendly forces employ the electromagnetic spectrum to their advantage, but capable adversaries exploit it to endanger friendly force activities. The issue is exacerbated by the rise of wireless technology and the increasingly sophisticated use of commercial off-the-shelf products.
Electronic warfare is defined as military action that use electromagnetic and directed energy to manipulate the electromagnetic spectrum or strike the enemy. EW capabilities are being expanded owing to new electromagnetic technology. Through delivery and integration with other forms of evolving weapons and capabilities, they have a dynamic effect on the electromagnetic spectrum. Directed-energy weaponry, high-powered microwaves, lasers, infrared, and electro-optical and wireless networks and equipment are just a few examples.
Commanders aim to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum in any warfare. They accomplish this by detecting, targeting, exploiting, interrupting, degrading, misleading, denying, or destroying enemy electronic systems that support military operations, or by preventing allied forces from using the spectrum. Because sophisticated electronic equipment is becoming more portable and affordable, the electromagnetic environment in which forces work will become increasingly more complex. Commander’s plan, develop, execute, and review EW operations against a broad variety of targets within the electromagnetic spectrum to ensure unrestricted access to and usage of the spectrum.
There are three types of electronic warfare market industry: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare assistance. Electronic attack is a type of fires that uses electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or ant radiation weapons to attack troops, facilities, or equipment in order to degrade, neutralize, or eliminate enemy combat capacity. Spot, barrage, and sweep electromagnetic jamming are all common methods of electronic attack. Various electromagnetic deception tactics, such as the formation of a false target or a duplicate target, are also used in electronic attack actions.
Electronic protection is a type of electronic warfare that entails taking steps to safeguard persons, facilities, and equipment against the impacts of friendly or hostile electromagnetic spectrum use that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capabilities. Electronic protection, for example, comprises efforts made to ensure that the electromagnetic spectrum is used responsibly, such as frequency agility in a radio or variable pulse repetition frequency in radar. Personnel, facilities, capabilities, and equipment are all protected by defensive electronic attack and electronic protection. Electronic protection, on the other hand, shields against the consequences of electronic attack (both friendly and hostile), whereas defensive electronic attack defends against fatal attacks by preventing enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum to guide or trigger weapons.
Electronic warfare support is a subset of electronic warfare market size that entails actions directed by or under the direct control of an operational commander to find, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purposes of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and execution of future operations. Electronic warfare support systems provide data for making quick decisions on electronic attack, electronic defence, avoidance, targeting, and other tactical force deployments. Electronic warfare support systems collect data and provide information or intelligence to corroborate other sources, conduct or command electronic attack operations, and activate self-protection measures.
EW capabilities are used by manned, unmanned, attended, and unattended systems from the air, land, sea, and space. EW capabilities are used by units to produce the desired lethal or nonlethal effect on a target. While maintaining freedom of action in the electromagnetic spectrum, units must keep an eye on the enemy’s use of it. Regardless of the application, units with EW capabilities must apply suitable degrees of electromagnetic spectrum control and protection. They avoid causing harm to friendly forces in this way.
Military operations are being carried out in an increasingly complex electromagnetic environment as the modern battlefield gets more technologically advanced. Information technology is becoming more accessible to everyone. To formulate and implement judgments, most adversaries rely on communications and computer networks. As a result, full spectrum operations rely heavily on the capacity to control the electromagnetic spectrum.