Explosion protection is used to shield people and property from the blast’s force and flying debris. Different materials that are intended to limit the explosion’s damage and prevent gradual collapse have been used to try and shield assets from blast. Explosion Segregation, Explosion Prevention, and Explosion Containment are the three main techniques for protecting against explosions. It has been estimated that about 87 percent of injuries caused by IEDs are in the lower part of the body, notably the low leg and tibia areas, as IEDs and blast events targeted at armoured vehicles are becoming a concern to armed forces around the world. So, in order to ensure soldier operational readiness and battlefield effectiveness, vehicle makers are increasingly focusing on offering protective systems that increase survivability.
XPT (EXPLOSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY)
The simplest way to define XPT (eXplosion Protection Technology) is as a “stone sponge.” The explosive shockwave can infiltrate the structure due to its intrinsic porosity. There, tens of thousands of tiny air chambers catch the blast wave, slow it down, and force it to dissipate itself by destroying the XPT’s structure. The breakdown of XPT goes through a lot of different stages, and it requires a highly powerful blast loading to get through each one. Each level protects the building or item behind it and lowers the energy reflected off of it by taking more energy out of the blast through its unique mechanism. A useful engineering material is XPT. Panels or moldings can be cast into a variety of shapes using simply straightforward and affordable mold equipment. It offers exceptional fire resistance, lowers background noise, and aids in the deceleration of the debris frequently produced by explosions.
GLASS FIBER-BASED COMPOSITES
Glass fibers are used to reinforce thermoset plastic resins to create Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite (GFRC). Fiber contributes weight, dimensional stability, and heat resistance. The surface finish, color, and many other qualities, including wear and flame retardancy, are all influenced by additives. Handling glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites is necessary for complex chemical action. The final qualities are influenced by various elements, such as the shape, quantity, and composition of the resins as well as the orientation of the reinforcements. The advantages and features of GFRC include lightweight, high strength, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, component consolidation, tooling minimization, low moisture absorption, high dielectric strength, little finishing needed, low to moderate tooling cost, and design freedom.
The importance of CFRP’s light weight and resistance cannot be overstated: it is up to five times lighter than steel and weighs only approximately 60% as much as aluminum. High fatigue strength, X-ray transparency, and minimal thermal expansion are other characteristics. An individual component’s precise qualities can be altered, regulated, and maximized. Thermosetting polymers like epoxy, polyester, or vinyl ester are used in CFRP composites. Even though “Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites” (CFRP Composites) use thermoplastic resins, they are frequently referred to as CFRTP composites. It’s crucial to comprehend the jargon and acronyms used while dealing with composites or in the composites sector. Understanding the characteristics of FRP composites and the capabilities of the various reinforcements, such as carbon fiber, is more significant. Carbon fiber composites are not only lesser in weight, but CFRP composites are also significantly stiffer and stronger per unit of weight. Comparing carbon fiber composites to glass fiber and metals demonstrates how true this is. One common presumption made when contrasting CFRP composites with aluminum, one of the lightest metals employed, is that an aluminum structure with an equivalent strength would probably weigh 1.5 times as much as the carbon fiber structure.
SANDWICH COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Despite their high strength-to-weight ratio and minimal radar return, composite sandwich materials have not yet been widely used in the construction of military vessels. The inadequate understanding of how they respond to an air blast is a barrier to their wider adoption. The sandwich composite has a high bending stiffness and a generally low density thanks to the increased thickness of the core material, which is often a low strength material. Commonly used core materials include open- and closed-cell structural foams such as polyethersulfone polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, polyethylene or polystyrene foams, balsa wood, syntactic foams, and honeycombs. For increased strength, the honeycomb structure is occasionally filled with different foams. As core materials, open- and closed-cell metal foam are also an option. Many thermoset polymers (unsaturated polyesters, epoxies, etc.) or thermoplastic laminates with glass or carbon fiber reinforcement are employed as skin materials. In some circumstances, sheet metal is also utilized as a skin material. With the use of an adhesive or by brazing together metal parts, the core is attached to the skins.
Comparing pure polyurethane coatings and other nanocomposite coating materials, polyurethane/nanocarbon nanocomposites exhibit multifunctional capabilities and high performance due to the synergistic effect of polymer and nanofiller. As coating reinforcements, nanocarbon materials such carbon nanotubes, nano diamonds, graphene and its derivatives, as well as inorganic nanoparticles, have been used. Comparing pure polyurethane coatings and other nanocomposite coating materials, polyurethane/nanocarbon nanocomposites exhibit multifunctional capabilities and high performance due to the synergistic effect of polymer and nanofiller. A potent tool that can be used to expand the usability of nanocomposite coatings in cutting-edge future applications is the modification of nanofillers and integration in suitable polyurethane matrices.
Nano particles will continue to play a critical role in development of advanced blast protection materials in the years to come. Advancement in composite technology will also be vital for development of effective blast protection materials that can defeat the threats of tomorrow.