Advancement In Radar Technology Will Shape The Next Generation Missile Defense Systems

Protecting territory, populations, and troops from any air and missile threat or assault is a crucial, ongoing mission in times of peace, crisis, and conflict. It is a crucial component of a country’s defense and deterrence, which supports the defensive capability of a sovereign nation.

S-400 Missile Battery

A mobile long-range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) battery called the S-400 was created by Almaz-Antey, a state-owned company in Russia. It is capable of shooting down a variety of airborne targets, including as stealth fighter planes, bombers, cruise and ballistic missiles, and even unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It contains two independent radar systems that can identify aerial targets at a range of 600 kilometers and can simultaneously engage 80 aerial targets. It also has four different types of missiles that can engage BVR targets up to a range of 400 kilometers. The S-400 is currently the most advanced air defense platform, and it costs around half as much as Western competitors like Lockheed Martin’s THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Air Defense) systems. It can also find NATO stealth fighters like the F-22 and F-35.

The S-400 surface-to-air missile battery was created as an improvement to the S-300 series. A multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and a command and control center are all included in the S-400 air defense system. It can launch three different kinds of missiles to build a layered defense.

In addition to the missiles of the S-300PMU system, the S-400 missile system employs four additional missile types. The 48N6DM was the system’s first missile to be introduced (48N6E3). It is a more advanced 48N6M model with a strong propulsion system. Within a 250km radius, the missile can destroy airborne targets. Using active radar homing, the S-400’s 40N6 missile can allegedly intercept air targets at a distance of 400 km.

Operating Countries

China, India and Turkey

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)

The transportable Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system stops ballistic missiles in their terminal phase of flight. It uses a single-stage, hit-to-kill interceptor with an X-band radar called the AN/TPY-2 to stop ballistic missiles both inside and outside of the atmosphere.

The THAAD launcher is built on a big tactical truck with four axles for enhanced mobility (HEMTT). Up to eight interceptors, each measuring 6.6 meters long and weighing 1,044 kilograms, can be carried by each launcher. 12 launchers has eight interceptors. Six launchers make up a standard THAAD battery, and it can take up to 30 minutes for each launcher to reload. The Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance (AN/TPY-2) radar is used by the THAAD system to identify and track enemy missiles at distances between 870 and 3,000 km. The AN/TPY-2 radar can be deployed in two different modes: a terminal mode (TM), which provides tracking and engagement data for terminal THAAD engagements, and a forward-based mode (FBM), which detects missiles in the ascent phase to alert other BMDS elements.

Patriot Missile battery

The main air and missile defense system used by the American Army is the MIM-104 Patriot. Although the Patriot was initially intended to be an antiaircraft system, more recent versions can also engage ballistic and cruise missiles, loitering weapons, and aircraft. One or more launch stations, a radar set, an engagement control station, a power generation vehicle, and other support vehicles make up a standard Patriot battery. About 90 personnel are required to operate a Patriot missile battery.

To find and engage targets, Patriot currently uses a single AN/MPQ-53, AN/MPQ-65, or AN/MPQ-65A radar system. The Patriot radar is unique in that it combines monitoring, tracking, and engaging tasks into a single unit.

Operating Countries

Netherlands, Germany, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Taiwan, Greece, Spain, South Korea, UAE, Qatar, Romania, Sweden, Poland, Bahrain, Romania and Sweden.

Sol-Air Moyenne Portée/Terrestre (SAMP/T)

Ground-based, road-mobile tactical ballistic missile defense system Sol-Air Moyenne Portée/Terrestre (SAMP/T) was created by Eurosam, a joint venture between MBDA France and Italy and Thales Group. SAMP/T offers theatre missile defense and can shield crucial tactical locations from cruise missiles, manned and unmanned aircraft, and tactical ballistic missiles, including ports and airports.

The Aster 15 and 30 of the SAMP/T have ranges of 30 and 120 kilometers, respectively. Both interceptors are two-stage rockets powered by solid fuel. The Aster 30 has a length of 4.9 m, a diameter of 0.18 m, and a launch weight of 450 kg. It has a top speed of Mach 4.5 and a maximum height of 20 kilometers. Up to eight interceptors, each measuring 6.6 meters long and weighing 1,044 kilograms, can be carried by each launcher.

David’s Sling Weapon System

The Stunner interceptor, an ELM-2084 fire control radar, a battle management/operator station, and a vertical missile launching unit make up the David’s Sling Weapon System (DSWS). The DSWS missile defense system, which is Israel’s intermediate line of defense, is meant to stop ballistic and cruise missiles at distances between 40 and 300 kilometers.

The Stunner, a two-stage, 4.6 m-long missile designed for DSWS, can intercept targets at ranges of up to 300 km and altitudes of up to 15 km. 3 It can travel up to Mach 7.5 using a three-pulse solid propellant motor. The active electronically steered array (AESA) ELM-2084 multimission radar for the system operates in the S-band frequency. The ELM-2084 can be used as a radar for fire control or air observation. In surveillance mode, it can electronically scan a 120-degree azimuth and 50-degree elevation, tracking up to 1100 targets at a distance of 474 kilometers. The ELM-2084 can rotate its antenna array at a rate of 30 rotations per minute to provide 360-degree surveillance. It can track up to 200 targets per minute at distances of 100 kilometers while in fire control mode.

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